How much money makes J. R. R. Tolkien? Net worth

January 1, 2020

J. R. R. Tolkien Net Worth

How rich is J. R. R. Tolkien? For this question we spent 22 hours on research (Wikipedia, Youtube, we read books in libraries, etc) to review the post.

The main source of income: Authors
Total Net Worth at the moment 2021 year – is about $500 Million.



J. R. R. Tolkien information Birth date: January 3, 1892, Bloemfontein, South Africa Death date: September 2, 1973, Bournemouth, United Kingdom Birth place: Bloemfontein Height:5 ft 8 in (1.74 m) Profession:Author, Writer, Poet, Philologist Nationality:United Kingdom Children:Christopher Tolkien, Priscilla Tolkien, Michael Tolkien, John Tolkien Movies:The Hobbit

Height, Weight

:How tall is J. R. R. Tolkien – 1,65m.
How much weight is J. R. R. Tolkien – 67kg


J. R. R. Tolkien Net Worth
J. R. R. Tolkien Net Worth
J. R. R. Tolkien Net Worth
J. R. R. Tolkien Net Worth


John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, CBE was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor, best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion. He served as the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-S…
Biography,Family originsTolkiens paternal ancestors were middle-class craftsmen who made and sold clocks, watches and pianos in London and Birmingham. The Tolkien family had emigrated from Germany in the 18th century but had become quickly intensely English. According to the family tradition, the Tolkiens had arrived in England in 1756, as refugees from Frederick the Greats invasion of the Electorate of Saxony during the Seven Years War. Several families with the surname Tolkien or similar spelling live in northwestern Germany, mainly in Lower Saxony and Hamburg.[11][12]Tolkien believed his surname derived from the German word tollkuhn, meaning foolhardy,[13] and jokingly inserted himself as a cameo into The Notion Club Papers under the literally-translated name Rashbold. However, this origin of the name has not been proven.[14] A German writer has suggested that the name is more likely to derive from the village of Tolkynen near Rastenburg, East Prussia (now in Poland and known as Tolkiny). Although that village is far from Lower Saxony, its name is derived from the now-extinct Old Prussian language.[15][16]Childhood1892 Christmas card with a coloured photo of the Tolkien family in Bloemfontein, sent to relatives in Birmingham, EnglandJohn Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on 3 January 1892 in Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State (now Free State Province in South Africa) to Arthur Reuel Tolkien (1857–1896), an English bank manager, and his wife Mabel, nee Suffield (1870–1904). The couple had left England when Arthur was promoted to head the Bloemfontein office of the British bank for which he worked. Tolkien had one sibling, his younger brother, Hilary Arthur Reuel, who was born on 17 February 1894.[17]As a child, he was bitten by a large baboon spider in the garden, an event some think later echoed in his stories, although Tolkien admitted no actual memory of the event and no special hatred of spiders as an adult. In another incident, a young family servant, who thought Tolkien a beautiful child, took the baby to his kraal to show him off, returning him the next morning.[18]When he was three, he went to England with his mother and brother on what was intended to be a lengthy family visit. His father, however, died in South Africa of rheumatic fever before he could join them.[19] This left the family without an income, so Tolkiens mother took him to live with her parents in Kings Heath,[20] Birmingham. Soon after, in 1896, they moved to Sarehole (now in Hall Green), then a Worcestershire village, later annexed to Birmingham.[21] He enjoyed exploring Sarehole Mill and Moseley Bog and the Clent, Lickey and Malvern Hills, which would later inspire scenes in his books, along with nearby towns and villages such as Bromsgrove, Alcester, and Alvechurch and places such as his aunt Janes farm of Bag End, the name of which he used in his fiction.[22]Birmingham Oratory, where Tolkien was a parishioner and altar boy, (1902–1911)Mabel Tolkien taught her two children at home. Ronald, as he was known in the family, was a keen pupil.[23] She taught him a great deal of botany and awakened in him the enjoyment of the look and feel of plants. Young Tolkien liked to draw landscapes and trees, but his favourite lessons were those concerning languages, and his mother taught him the rudiments of Latin very early.[24]Tolkien could read by the age of four and could write fluently soon afterwards. His mother allowed him to read many books. He disliked Treasure Island and The Pied Piper and thought Alices Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll was amusing but disturbing. He liked stories about Red Indians (Native Americans) and the fantasy works by George MacDonald.[25] In addition, the Fairy Books of Andrew Lang were particularly important to him and their influence is apparent in some of his later writings.[26]King Edwards School in Birmingham, where Tolkien was a student (1900–1902, 1903–1911)[27]Mabel Tolkien was received into the Roman Catholic Church in 1900 despite vehement protests by her Baptist family,[28] which stopped all financial assistance to her. In 1904, when J.R.R. Tolkien was 12, his mother died of acute diabetes at Fern Cottage in Rednal, which she was renting. She was then about 34 years of age, about as old as a person with diabetes mellitus type 1 could live without treatment—insulin would not be discovered until two decades later. Nine years after her death, Tolkien wrote, My own dear mother was a martyr indeed, and it is not to everybody that God grants so easy a way to his great gifts as he did to Hilary and myself, giving us a mother who killed herself with labour and trouble to ensure us keeping the faith.[28]Prior to her death, Mabel Tolkien had assigned the guardianship of her sons to her close friend, Fr. Francis Xavier Morgan of the Birmingham Oratory, who was assigned to bring them up as good Catholics. In a 1965 letter to his son Michael, Tolkien recalled the influence of the man whom he always called Father Francis: He was an upper-class Welsh-Spaniard Tory, and seemed to some just a pottering old gossip. He was—and he was not. I first learned charity and forgiveness from him, and in the light of it pierced even the liberal darkness out of which I came, knowing more [i.e. Tolkien having grown up knowing more] about Bloody Mary than the Mother of Jesus—who was never mentioned except as an object of wicked worship by the Romanists.[29]After his mothers death, Tolkien grew up in the Edgbaston area of Birmingham and attended King Edwards School, Birmingham, and later St. Philips School. In 1903, he won a Foundation Scholarship and returned to King Edwards. While a pupil there, Tolkien was one of the cadets from the schools Officers Training Corps who helped line the route for the 1910 coronation parade of King George V. Like the other cadets from King Edwards, Tolkien was posted just outside the gates of Buckingham Palace.[30]In Edgbaston, Tolkien lived there in the shadow of Perrotts Folly and the Victorian tower of Edgbaston Waterworks, which may have influenced the images of the dark towers within his works.[31][32] Another strong influence was the romantic medievalist paintings of Edward Burne-Jones and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery had a large collection of works on public display.[33]YouthWhile in his early teens, Tolkien had his first encounter with a constructed language, Animalic, an invention of his cousins, Mary and Marjorie Incledon. At that time, he was studying Latin and Anglo-Saxon. Interest in the language soon died away, but Mary and others, including Tolkien himself, invented a new and more complex language called Nevbosh. The next constructed language he came to work with, Naffarin, would be his own creation.[34][35]In 1911, while they were at King Edwards School, Birmingham, Tolkien and three friends, Rob Gilson, Geoffrey Bache Smith and Christopher Wiseman, formed a semi-secret society they called the T.C.B.S. The initials stood for Tea Club and Barrovian Society, alluding to their fondness for drinking tea in Barrows Stores near the school and, secretly, in the school library.[36][37] After leaving school, the members stayed in touch and, in December 1914, they held a council in London at Wisemans home. For Tolkien, the result of this meeting was a strong dedication to writing poetry.In 1911, Tolkien went on a summer holiday in Switzerland, a trip that he recollects vividly in a 1968 letter,[30] noting that Bilbos journey across the Misty Mountains (including the glissade down the slithering stones into the pine woods) is directly based on his adventures as their party of 12 hiked from Interlaken to Lauterbrunnen and on to camp in the moraines beyond Murren. Fifty-seven years later, Tolkien remembered his regret at leaving the view of the eternal snows of Jungfrau and Silberhorn (the Silvertine (Celebdil) of my dreams). They went across the Kleine Scheidegg to Grindelwald and on across the Grosse Scheidegg to Meiringen. They continued across the Grimsel Pass, through the upper Valais to Brig and on to the Aletsch glacier and Zermatt.[38]In October of the same year, Tolkien began studying at Exeter College, Oxford. He initially studied Classics but changed his course in 1913 to English Language and Literature, graduating in 1915 with first-class honours in his final examinations.[39]Courtship and marriageAt the age of 16, J.R.R. Tolkien met Edith Mary Bratt, who was three years his senior, when he and his brother Hilary moved into the boarding house where she lived in Duchess Road, Edgbaston. According to Humphrey Carpenter,Edith and Ronald took to frequenting Birmingham teashops, especially one which had a balcony overlooking the pavement. There they would sit and throw sugarlumps into the hats of passers-by, moving to the next table when the sugar bowl was empty. … With two people of their personalities and in their position, romance was bound to flourish. Both were orphans in need of affection, and they found that they could give it to each other. During the summer of 1909, they decided that they were in love.[40]His guardian, Father Morgan, viewed Edith as the reason for Tolkiens having muffed his exams and considered it altogether unfortunate[41] that his surrogate son was romantically involved with an older, Protestant woman. He prohibited him from meeting, talking to, or even corresponding with her until he was 21. He obeyed this prohibition to the letter,[42] with one notable early exception, over which Father Morgan threatened to cut short his university career if he did not stop.[43]In a 1941 letter to his son Michael, Tolkien recalled,I had to choose between disobeying and grieving (or deceiving) a guardian who had been a father to me, more than most fathers … and dropping the love-affair until I was 21. I dont regret my decision, though it was very hard on my lover. But it was not my fault. She was completely free and under no vow to me, and I should have had no just complaint (except according to the unreal romantic code) if she had got married to someone else. For very nearly three years I did not see or write to my lover. It was extremely hard, especially at first. The effects were not wholly good: I fell back into folly and slackness and misspent a good deal of my first year at college.[41]On the evening of his 21st birthday, Tolkien wrote to Edith, who was living with family friend C. H. Jessop at Cheltenham. He declared that he had never ceased to love her and asked her to marry him. Edith replied that she had already accepted the proposal of George Field, the brother of one of her closest schoolfriends. Edith said, however, that she had agreed to marry Field only because she felt on the shelf and had begun to doubt that Tolkien still cared for her. She explained that, because of Tolkiens letter, everything had changed.On 8 January 1913, Tolkien travelled by train to Cheltenham and was met on the platform by Edith. The two took a walk into the countryside, sat under a railway viaduct, and talked. By the end of the day, Edith had agreed to accept Tolkiens proposal. She wrote to Field and returned her engagement ring. Field was dreadfully upset at first, and the Field family was insulted and angry.[44] Upon learning of Ediths new plans, Jessop wrote to her guardian, I have nothing to say against Tolkien, he is a cultured gentleman, but his prospects are poor in the extreme, and when he will be in a position to marry I cannot imagine. Had he adopted a profession it would have been different.[45]Following their engagement, Edith reluctantly announced that she was converting to Catholicism at Tolkiens insistence. Jessop, like many others of his age and class … strongly anti-Catholic, was infuriated, and he ordered Edith to find other lodgings.[46]Edith Bratt and Ronald Tolkien were formally engaged at Birmingham in January 1913, and married at St. Mary Immaculate Roman Catholic Church, Warwick, on 22 March 1916.[47] In his 1941 letter to Michael, Tolkien expressed admiration for his wifes willingness to marry a man with no job, little money, and no prospects except the likelihood of being killed in the Great War.[41]First World WarIn August 1914 the United Kingdom entered the First World War. Tolkiens relatives were shocked when he elected not to immediately volunteer for the British Army. In a 1941 letter to his son Michael, Tolkien recalled, In those days chaps joined up, or were scorned publicly. It was a nasty cleft to be in for a young man with too much imagination and little physical courage.[41]Instead, Tolkien, endured the obloquy,[41] and entered a programme wherein he delayed enlistment until completing his degree. By the time he passed his Finals in July 1915, Tolkien recalled that the hints were becoming outspoken from relatives.[41] He was then commissioned as a temporary second lieutenant in the Lancashire Fusiliers on 15 July 1915.[48][49] He trained with the 13th (Reserve) Battalion on Cannock Chase, Staffordshire, for eleven months. In a letter to Edith, Tolkien complained, Gentlemen are rare among the superiors, and even human beings rare indeed.[50] Following their wedding, Lieutenant and Mrs. Tolkien took up lodgings near the training camp.On 2 June 1916, Tolkien received a telegram summoning him to Folkestone for transportation to France. The Tolkiens spent the night before his departure in a room at the Plough & Harrow Hotel in Birmingham.He later wrote, Junior officers were being killed off, a dozen a minute. Parting from my wife then … it was like a death.[51]FranceOn 5 June 1916, Tolkien boarded a troop transport for an overnight voyage to Calais. Like other soldiers arriving for the first time, Lieutenant Tolkien was sent to the British Expeditionary Forces (BEF) base depot at Etaples.On 7 June, Tolkien was informed that he had been assigned as a signals officer to the 11th (Service) Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers. The battalion was part of the 74th Brigade, 25th Division. While awaiting summons to his new regiment, Tolkien sank into boredom.To pass the time, he composed a poem entitled, The Lonely Isle, which was inspired by his feelings during the sea crossing to Calais. To evade the British Armys postal censorship, Tolkien also passed time by developing a code of dots with which Edith could track his movements.[52]Lieutenant Tolkien left Etaples on 27 June 1916 and joined his new unit at Rubempre, near Amiens.[53]Tolkien found himself commanding enlisted men who were drawn mainly from the mining, milling, and weaving towns of Lancashire.[54]According to John Garth, Tolkien felt an affinity for these working class men, but military protocol forbade him from developing friendships with other ranks. Instead, he was required to take charge of them, discipline them, train them, and probably censor their letters… If possible, he was supposed to inspire their love and loyalty.[55]Tolkien later lamented, The most improper job of any man… is bossing other men. Not one in a million is fit for it, and least of all those who seek the opportunity.[55]Battle of the SommeTolkien arrived at the Somme in early July 1916. In between terms behind the lines at Bouzincourt, he participated in the assaults on the Schwaben Redoubt and the Leipzig Salient. According to the memoirs of the Reverend Mervyn S. Evers, Anglican chaplain to the Lancashire Fusiliers:The Schwaben Redoubt by William Orpen. Imperial War Museum, London.On one occasion I spent the night with the Brigade Machine Gun Officer and the Signals Officer in one of the captured German dugouts … We dossed down for the night in the hopes of getting some sleep, but it was not to be. We no sooner lay down than hordes of lice got up. So we went round to the Medical Officer, who was also in the dugout with his equipment, and he gave us some ointment which he assured us would keep the little brutes away. We anointed ourselves all over with the stuff and again lay down in great hopes, but it was not to be, because instead of discouraging them it seemed to act like a kind of hors doeuvre and the little beggars went at their feast with renewed vigour.[56]Tolkiens time in combat was a terrible stress for Edith, who feared that every knock on the door might carry news of her husbands death. To get around the British Armys postal censorship, the Tolkiens developed a secret code for his letters home. By using the code, Edith could track her husbands movements on a map of the Western Front.On 27 October 1916, as his battalion attacked Regina Trench, Tolkien came down with trench fever, a disease carried by lice, which were common in the dugouts. Tolkien was invalided to England on 8 November 1916.[57] Many of his dearest school friends were killed in the war. Among their number were Rob Gilson of the Tea Club and Barrovian Society, who was killed on the first day of the Somme while leading his men in the assault on Beaumont Hamel. Fellow T.C.B.S. member Geoffrey Smith was killed during the same battle when a German artillery shell landed on a first aid post. Tolkiens battalion was almost completely wiped out following his return to England.Men of the 1st Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers in a communication trench near Beaumont Hamel, 1916. Photo by Ernest Brooks.Tolkien might well have been killed himself, but he had suffered from health problems and had been removed from combat multiple times.[58]According to John Garth:Although Kitcheners army enshrined old social boundaries, it also chipped away at the class divide by throwing men from all walks of life into a desperate situation together. Tolkien wrote that the experience taught him, a deep sympathy and feeling for the Tommy, especially the plain soldier from the agricultural counties. He remained profoundly grateful for the lesson. For a long time, he had been imprisoned in a tower, not of pearl, but of ivory.[59]In later years, Tolkien indignantly declared that those who searched his works for parallels to the Second World War were entirely mistaken:One has indeed personally to come under the shadow of war to feel fully its oppression, but as the years go by it seems now often forgotten that to be caught in youth by 1914 was no less hideous an experience than to be involved in 1939 and the following years. By 1918 all but one of my close friends were dead.[60]Home frontA weak and emaciated Tolkien spent the remainder of the war alternating between hospitals and garrison duties, being deemed medically unfit for general service.[61][62]During his recovery in a cottage in Little Haywood, Staffordshire, he began to work on what he called The Book of Lost Tales, beginning with The Fall of Gondolin. Lost Tales represented Tolkiens attempt to create a mythology for England, a project he would abandon without ever completing.[63] Throughout 1917 and 1918 his illness kept recurring, but he had recovered enough to do home service at various camps. It was at this time that Edith bore their first child, John Francis Reuel Tolkien. In a 1941 letter, Tolkien described his son John as (conceived and carried during the starvation-year of 1917 and the great U-Boat campaign) round about the Battle of Cambrai, when then end of the war seemed as far off as it does now.[41]Tolkien was promoted to the temporary rank of lieutenant on 6 January 1918.[64] When he was stationed at Kingston upon Hull, he and Edith went walking in the woods at nearby Roos, and Edith began to dance for him in a clearing among the flowering hemlock. After his wifes death in 1971, Tolkien remembered,I never called Edith Luthien—but she was the source of the story that in time became the chief part of the Silmarillion. It was first conceived in a small woodland glade filled with hemlocks[65] at Roos in Yorkshire (where I was for a brief time in command of an outpost of the Humber Garrison in 1917, and she was able to live with me for a while). In those days her hair was raven, her skin clear, her eyes brighter than you have seen them, and she could sing—and dance. But the story has gone crooked, & I am left, and I cannot plead before the inexorable Mandos.[66]This incident inspired the account of the meeting of Beren and Luthien.[67]Academic and writing career2 Darnley Road, the former home of Tolkien in West Park, Leeds20 Northmoor Road, the former home of Tolkien in North OxfordOn 3 November 1920, Tolkien was demobilized and left the army, retaining his rank of lieutenant.[68] His first civilian job after World War I was at the Oxford English Dictionary, where he worked mainly on the history and etymology of words of Germanic origin beginning with the letter W.[69] In 1920, he took up a post as Reader in English Language at the University of Leeds, and became the youngest professor there.[70] While at Leeds, he produced A Middle English Vocabulary and a definitive edition of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight with E. V. Gordon, both becoming academic standard works for several decades. He also translated Sir Gawain, Pearl, and Sir Orfeo. In 1925, he returned to Oxford as Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon, with a fellowship at Pembroke College.During his time at Pembroke College Tolkien wrote The Hobbit and the first two volumes of The Lord of the Rings, whilst living at 20 Northmoor Road in North Oxford (where a blue plaque was placed in 2002). He also published a philological essay in 1932 on the name Nodens, following Sir Mortimer Wheelers unearthing of a Roman Asclepeion at Lydney Park, Gloucestershire, in 1928.[71]BeowulfIn the 1920s, Tolkien undertook a translation of Beowulf, which he finished in 1926. He never published it. It was finally edited by his son and published in 2014, more than forty years after Tolkiens death and almost 90 years since its completion.[72]Ten years after finishing his translation, Tolkien gave a highly acclaimed lecture on the work, entitled Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics, which had a lasting influence on Beowulf research.[73] Lewis E. Nicholson said that the article Tolkien wrote about Beowulf is widely recognized as a turning point in Beowulfian criticism, noting that Tolkien established the primacy of the poetic nature of the work as opposed to its purely linguistic elements.[74] At the time, the consensus of scholarship deprecated Beowulf for dealing with childish battles with monsters rather than realistic tribal warfare, Tolkien argued that the author of Beowulf was addressing human destiny in general, not as limited by particular tribal politics, and therefore the monsters were essential to the poem.[75] Where Beowulf does deal with specific tribal struggles, as at Finnsburg, Tolkien argued firmly against reading in fantastic elements.[76] In the essay, Tolkien also revealed how highly he regarded Beowulf: Beowulf is among my most valued sources, and this influence may be seen throughout his Middle-earth legendarium.[77]According to Humphrey Carpenter, Tolkien had an ingenious means of beginning his series of lectures on Beowulf:He would come silently into the room, fix the audience with his gaze, and suddenly begin to declaim in a resounding voice the opening lines of the poem in the original Anglo-Saxon, commencing with a great cry of Hw?t! (The first word of this and several other Old English poems), which some undergraduates took to be Quiet! It was not so much a recitation as a dramatic performance, an impersonation of an Anglo-Saxon bard in a mead hall, and it impressed generations of students because it brought home to them that Beowulf was not just a set text to be read for the purposes of examination, but a powerful piece of dramatic poetry.[78]Decades later, W.H. Auden wrote to his former professor,I dont think that I have ever told you what an unforgettable experience it was for me as an undergraduate, hearing you recite Beowulf. The voice was the voice of Gandalf.[78]Second World WarMerton College, where Tolkien was Professor of English Language and Literature (1945–1959)In the run-up to the Second World War, Tolkien was earmarked as a codebreaker.[79][80] In January 1939, he was asked whether he would be prepared to serve in the cryptographic department of the Foreign Office in the event of national emergency.[79][80] He replied in the affirmative and, beginning on 27 March, took an instructional course at the London HQ of the Government Code and Cypher School.[79][80] A record of his training was found which included the notation keen next to his name,[81] although Tolkien scholar Anders Stenstrom suggested that In all likelihood, that is not a record of Tolkiens interest, but a note about how to pronounce the name.[82] He was informed in October that his services would not be required.[79][80]In 1945, Tolkien moved to Merton College, Oxford, becoming the Merton Professor of English Language and Literature,[83] in which post he remained until his retirement in 1959. He served as an external examiner for University College, Dublin, for many years. In 1954 Tolkien received an honorary degree from the National University of Ireland (of which U.C.D. was a constituent college). Tolkien completed The Lord of the Rings in 1948, close to a decade after the first sketches.Tolkien also translated the Book of Jonah for the Jerusalem Bible, which was published in 1966.[84]FamilyThe Tolkiens had four children: John Francis Reuel Tolkien (17 November 1917 – 22 January 2003), Michael Hilary Reuel Tolkien (22 October 1920 – 27 February 1984), Christopher John Reuel Tolkien (born 21 November 1924) and Priscilla Mary Anne Reuel Tolkien (born 18 June 1929). Tolkien was very devoted to his children and sent them illustrated letters from Father Christmas when they were young. Each year more characters were added, such as the North Polar Bear (Father Christmass helper), the Snow Man (his gardener), Ilbereth the elf (his secretary), and various other, minor characters. The major characters would relate tales of Father Christmass battles against goblins who rode on bats and the various pranks committed by the North Polar Bear.[85]Retirement and later yearsBust of Tolkien in the chapel of Exeter College, OxfordDuring his life in retirement, from 1959 up to his death in 1973, Tolkien received steadily increasing public attention and literary fame. The sales of his books were so profitable that he regretted that he had not chosen early retirement.[24] At first, he wrote enthusiastic answers to readers enquiries, but he became increasingly unhappy about the sudden popularity of his books with the 1960s counter-culture movement.[86] In a 1972 letter, he deplored having become a cult-figure, but admitted that even the nose of a very modest idol … cannot remain entirely untickled by the sweet smell of incense![87]Fan attention became so intense that Tolkien had to take his phone number out of the public directory,[88] and eventually he and Edith moved to Bournemouth, which was then a seaside resort patronized by the British upper middle class. Tolkiens status as a best-selling author gave them easy entry into polite society, but Tolkien deeply missed the company of his fellow Inklings. Edith, however, was overjoyed to step into the role of a society hostess, which had been the reason that Tolkien selected Bournemouth in the first place.According to Humphrey Carpenter,Those friends who knew Ronald and Edith Tolkien over the years never doubted that there was deep affection between them. It was visible in the small things, the almost absurd degree in which each worried about the others health, and the care in which they chose and wrapped each others birthday presents, and in the large matters, the way in which Ronald willingly abandoned such a large part of his life in retirement to give Edith the last years in Bournemouth that he felt she deserved, and the degree in which she showed pride in his fame as an author. A principal source of happiness to them was their shared love of their family. This bound them together until the end of their lives, and it was perhaps the strongest force in the marriage. They delighted to discuss and mull over every detail of the lives of their children, and later their grandchildren.[89]Final yearsEdith Tolkien died on 29 November 1971, at the age of 82. According to Simon Tolkien:The grave of J. R. R. and Edith Tolkien, Wolvercote Cemetery, OxfordMy grandmother died two years before my grandfather and he came back to live in Oxford. Merton College gave him rooms just off the High Street. I went there frequently and hed take me to lunch in the Eastgate Hotel. Those lunches were rather wonderful for a 12-year-old boy spending time with his grandfather, but sometimes he seemed sad. There was one visit when he told me how much he missed my grandmother. It must have been very strange for him being alone after they had been married for more than 50 years.[90]Tolkien was appointed by Queen Elizabeth II a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1972 New Year Honours[91] and received the insignia of the Order at Buckingham Palace on 28 March 1972.[92] In the same year Oxford University conferred upon him an honorary Doctorate of Letters.[39][93]Tolkien had the name Luthien engraved on Ediths tombstone at Wolvercote Cemetery, Oxford. When Tolkien died 21 months later on 2 September 1973, at the age of 81,[94] he was buried in the same grave, with Beren added to his name. The engravings read:Edith Mary TolkienLuthien1889–1971John RonaldReuel TolkienBeren1892–1973Wolvercote Cemetery, OxfordIn Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, Luthien was the most beautiful of all the Children of Iluvatar, and forsook her immortality for her love of the mortal warrior Beren. After Beren was captured by the forces of the Dark Lord Morgoth, Luthien rode to his rescue upon the talking wolfhound Huan. Ultimately, when Beren was slain in battle against the demonic wolf Carcharoth, Luthien, like Orpheus, approached the Valar, the angelic order of beings placed in charge of the world by Eru (God), and persuaded them to restore her beloved to life.


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