Charles Darwin Net Worth
Charles Darwin makes how much a year? For this question we spent 30 hours on research (Wikipedia, Youtube, we read books in libraries, etc) to review the post.
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Total Net Worth at the moment 2023 year – is about $207,8 Million.
Charles Darwin information Birth date: 1809-02-12 Death date: 1882-04-19 Birth place: The Mount, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, United Kingdom Profession:Miscellaneous Crew, Actor Spouse:Emma Darwin
:How tall is Charles Darwin – 1,64m.
How much weight is Charles Darwin – 81kg
Charles Robert Darwin, FRS (/?d?rw?n/, 12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and in a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding.Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species. By the 1870s the scientific community and much of the general public had accepted evolution as a fact. However, many favoured competing explanations and it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed in which natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution. In modified form, Darwins scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences, explaining the diversity of life.Darwins early interest in nature led him to neglect his medical education at the University of Edinburgh, instead, he helped to investigate marine invertebrates. Studies at the University of Cambridge (Christs College) encouraged his passion for natural science. His five-year voyage on HMS Beagle established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyells uniformitarian ideas, and publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author.Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin began detailed investigations and in 1838 conceived his theory of natural selection. Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists, he needed time for extensive research and his geological work had priority. He was writing up his theory in 1858 when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay which described the same idea, prompting immediate joint publication of both of their theories. Darwins work established evolutionary descent with modification as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature. In 1871 he examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. His research on plants was published in a series of books, and in his final book, he examined earthworms and their effect on soil.Darwin became internationally famous, and his pre-eminence as a scientist was honoured by burial in Westminster Abbey. Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history.
Biography,Early life and educationSee also: Charles Darwins education and Darwin-Wedgwood familyCharles Robert Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England, on 12 February 1809 at his familys home, The Mount. He was the fifth of six children of wealthy society doctor and financier Robert Darwin, and of Susannah Darwin (nee Wedgwood). He was the grandson of two prominent abolitionists: Erasmus Darwin on his fathers side, and Josiah Wedgwood on his mothers side.Painting of seven-year-old Charles Darwin in 1816.Both families were largely Unitarian, though the Wedgwoods were adopting Anglicanism. Robert Darwin, himself quietly a freethinker, had baby Charles baptised in November 1809 in the Anglican St Chads Church, Shrewsbury, but Charles and his siblings attended the Unitarian chapel with their mother. The eight-year-old Charles already had a taste for natural history and collecting when he joined the day school run by its preacher in 1817. That July, his mother died. From September 1818, he joined his older brother Erasmus attending the nearby Anglican Shrewsbury School as a boarder.Darwin spent the summer of 1825 as an apprentice doctor, helping his father treat the poor of Shropshire, before going to the University of Edinburgh Medical School (at the time the best medical school in the UK) with his brother Erasmus in October 1825. He found lectures dull and surgery distressing, so neglected his studies. He learned taxidermy in around 40 daily hour-long sessions from John Edmonstone, a freed black slave who had accompanied Charles Waterton in the South American rainforest.In Darwins second year at the university he joined the Plinian Society, a student natural-history group featuring lively debates in which radical democratic students with materialistic views challenged orthodox religious concepts of science. He assisted Robert Edmond Grants investigations of the anatomy and life cycle of marine invertebrates in the Firth of Forth, and on 27 March 1827 presented at the Plinian his own discovery that black spores found in oyster shells were the eggs of a skate leech. One day, Grant praised Lamarcks evolutionary ideas. Darwin was astonished by Grants audacity, but had recently read similar ideas in his grandfather Erasmus journals. Darwin was rather bored by Robert Jamesons natural-history course, which covered geology – including the debate between Neptunism and Plutonism. He learned the classification of plants, and assisted with work on the collections of the University Museum, one of the largest museums in Europe at the time.Darwins neglect of medical studies annoyed his father, who shrewdly sent him to Christs College, Cambridge, to study for a Bachelor of Arts degree as the first step towards becoming an Anglican country parson. As Darwin was unqualified for the Tripos, he joined the ordinary degree course in January 1828. He preferred riding and shooting to studying. His cousin William Darwin Fox introduced him to the popular craze for beetle collecting, Darwin pursued this zealously, getting some of his finds published in Stevens Illustrations of British entomology. He became a close friend and follower of botany professor John Stevens Henslow and met other leading parson-naturalists who saw scientific work as religious natural theology, becoming known to these dons as the man who walks with Henslow. When his own exams drew near, Darwin focused on his studies and was delighted by the language and logic of William Paleys Evidences of Christianity (1794). In his final examination in January 1831 Darwin did well, coming tenth out of 178 candidates for the ordinary degree.Darwin had to stay at Cambridge until June 1831. He studied Paleys Natural Theology or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity (first published in 1802), which made an argument for divine design in nature, explaining adaptation as God acting through laws of nature. He read John Herschels new book, Preliminary Discourse on the Study of Natural Philosophy (1831), which described the highest aim of natural philosophy as understanding such laws through inductive reasoning based on observation, and Alexander von Humboldts Personal Narrative of scientific travels in 1799-1804. Inspired with a burning zeal to contribute, Darwin planned to visit Tenerife with some classmates after graduation to study natural history in the tropics. In preparation, he joined Adam Sedgwicks geology course, then travelled with him in the summer for a fortnight, in order to map strata in Wales.Voyage of the BeagleFor more details on this topic, see Second voyage of HMS Beagle.The voyage of the Beagle, 1831–1836After a week with student friends at Barmouth, Darwin returned home on 29 August to find a letter from Henslow proposing him as a suitable (if unfinished) naturalist for a self-funded supernumerary place on HMS Beagle with captain Robert FitzRoy, emphasising that this was a position for a gentleman rather than a mere collector. The ship was to leave in four weeks on an expedition to chart the coastline of South America. Robert Darwin objected to his sons planned two-year voyage, regarding it as a waste of time, but was persuaded by his brother-in-law, Josiah Wedgwood, to agree to (and fund) his sons participation. Darwin took care to remain in a private capacity to retain control over his collection, intending it for a major scientific institution.After delays, the voyage began on 27 December 1831, it lasted almost five years. As FitzRoy had intended, Darwin spent most of that time on land investigating geology and making natural history collections, while the Beagle surveyed and charted coasts. He kept careful notes of his observations and theoretical speculations, and at intervals during the voyage his specimens were sent to Cambridge together with letters including a copy of his journal for his family. He had some expertise in geology, beetle collecting and dissecting marine invertebrates, but in all other areas was a novice and ably collected specimens for expert appraisal. Despite suffering badly from seasickness, Darwin wrote copious notes while on board the ship. Most of his zoology notes are about marine invertebrates, starting with plankton collected in a calm spell.On their first stop ashore at St Jago in Cape Verde, Darwin found that a white band high in the volcanic rock cliffs included seashells. FitzRoy had given him the first volume of Charles Lyells Principles of Geology, which set out uniformitarian concepts of land slowly rising or falling over immense periods,[II] and Darwin saw things Lyells way, theorising and thinking of writing a book on geology. When they reached Brazil, Darwin was delighted by the tropical forest, but detested the sight of slavery, and disputed this issue with Fitzroy.The survey continued to the south in Patagonia. They stopped at Bahia Blanca, and in cliffs near Punta Alta Darwin made a major find of fossil bones of huge extinct mammals beside modern seashells, indicating recent extinction with no signs of change in climate or catastrophe. He identified the little-known Megatherium by a tooth and its association with bony armour, which had at first seemed to him to be like a giant version of the armour on local armadillos. The finds brought great interest when they reached England.On rides with gauchos into the interior to explore geology and collect more fossils, Darwin gained social, political and anthropological insights into both native and colonial people at a time of revolution, and learnt that two types of rhea had separate but overlapping territories. Further south, he saw stepped plains of shingle and seashells as raised beaches showing a series of elevations. He read Lyells second volume and accepted its view of centres of creation of species, but his discoveries and theorising challenged Lyells ideas of smooth continuity and of extinction of species.As HMS Beagle surveyed the coasts of South America, Darwin theorised about geology and extinction of giant mammals.Three Fuegians on board had been seized during the first Beagle voyage, then during a year in England were educated as missionaries. Darwin found them friendly and civilised, yet at Tierra del Fuego he met miserable, degraded savages, as different as wild from domesticated animals. He remained convinced that, despite this diversity, all humans were interrelated with a shared origin and potential for improvement towards civilisation. Unlike his scientist friends, he now thought there was no unbridgeable gap between humans and animals. A year on, the mission had been abandoned. The Fuegian they had named Jemmy Button lived like the other natives, had a wife, and had no wish to return to England.Darwin experienced an earthquake in Chile and saw signs that the land had just been raised, including mussel-beds stranded above high tide. High in the Andes he saw seashells, and several fossil trees that had grown on a sand beach. He theorised that as the land rose, oceanic islands sank, and coral reefs round them grew to form atolls.On the geologically new Galapagos Islands, Darwin looked for evidence attaching wildlife to an older centre of creation, and found mockingbirds allied to those in Chile but differing from island to island. He heard that slight variations in the shape of tortoise shells showed which island they came from, but failed to collect them, even after eating tortoises taken on board as food. In Australia, the marsupial rat-kangaroo and the platypus seemed so unusual that Darwin thought it was almost as though two distinct Creators had been at work. He found the Aborigines good-humoured & pleasant, and noted their depletion by European settlement.The Beagle investigated how the atolls of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands had formed, and the survey supported Darwins theorising. FitzRoy began writing the official Narrative of the Beagle voyages, and after reading Darwins diary he proposed incorporating it into the account. Darwins Journal was eventually rewritten as a separate third volume, on natural history.In Cape Town, Darwin and FitzRoy met John Herschel, who had recently written to Lyell praising his uniformitarianism as opening bold speculation on that mystery of mysteries, the replacement of extinct species by others as a natural in contradistinction to a miraculous process. When organising his notes as the ship sailed home, Darwin wrote that, if his growing suspicions about the mockingbirds, the tortoises and the Falkland Islands fox were correct, such facts undermine the stability of Species, then cautiously added would before undermine. He later wrote that such facts seemed to me to throw some light on the origin of species.Inception of Darwins evolutionary theoryFor more details on this topic, see Inception of Darwins theory.While still a young man, Charles Darwin joined the scientific elite.When the Beagle reached Falmouth, Cornwall, on 2 October 1836, Darwin was already a celebrity in scientific circles as in December 1835 Henslow had fostered his former pupils reputation by giving selected naturalists a pamphlet of Darwins geological letters. Darwin visited his home in Shrewsbury and saw relatives, then hurried to Cambridge to see Henslow, who advised him on finding naturalists available to catalogue the collections and agreed to take on the botanical specimens. Darwins father organised investments, enabling his son to be a self-funded gentleman scientist, and an excited Darwin went round the London institutions being feted and seeking experts to describe the collections. Zoologists had a huge backlog of work, and there was a danger of specimens just being left in storage.Charles Lyell eagerly met Darwin for the first time on 29 October and soon introduced him to the up-and-coming anatomist Richard Owen, who had the facilities of the Royal College of Surgeons to work on the fossil bones collected by Darwin. Owens surprising results included other gigantic extinct ground sloths as well as the Megatherium, a near complete skeleton of the unknown Scelidotherium and a hippopotamus-sized rodent-like skull named Toxodon resembling a giant capybara. The armour fragments were actually from Glyptodon, a huge armadillo-like creature as Darwin had initially thought. These extinct creatures were related to living species in South America.In mid-December, Darwin took lodgings in Cambridge to organise work on his collections and rewrite his Journal. He wrote his first paper, showing that the South American landmass was slowly rising, and with Lyells enthusiastic backing read it to the Geological Society of London on 4 January 1837. On the same day, he presented his mammal and bird specimens to the Zoological Society. The ornithologist John Gould soon announced that the Galapagos birds that Darwin had thought a mixture of blackbirds, gros-beaks and finches, were, in fact, twelve separate species of finches. On 17 February, Darwin was elected to the Council of the Geological Society, and Lyells presidential address presented Owens findings on Darwins fossils, stressing geographical continuity of species as supporting his uniformitarian ideas.Early in March, Darwin moved to London to be near this work, joining Lyells social circle of scientists and experts such as Charles Babbage, who described God as a programmer of laws. Darwin stayed with his freethinking brother Erasmus, part of this Whig circle and a close friend of the writer Harriet Martineau, who promoted Malthusianism underlying the controversial Whig Poor Law reforms to stop welfare from causing overpopulation and more poverty. As a Unitarian, she welcomed the radical implications of transmutation of species, promoted by Grant and younger surgeons influenced by Geoffroy. Transmutation was anathema to Anglicans defending social order, but reputable scientists openly discussed the subject and there was wide interest in John Herschels letter praising Lyells approach as a way to find a natural cause of the origin of new species.Gould met Darwin and told him that the Galapagos mockingbirds from different islands were separate species, not just varieties, and what Darwin had thought was a wren was also in the finch group. Darwin had not labelled the finches by island, but from the notes of others on the Beagle, including FitzRoy, he allocated species to islands. The two rheas were also distinct species, and on 14 March Darwin announced how their distribution changed going southwards.In mid-July 1837 Darwin started his B notebook on Transmutation of Species, and on page 36 wrote I think above his first evolutionary tree.By mid-March, Darwin was speculating in his Red Notebook on the possibility that one species does change into another to explain the geographical distribution of living species such as the rheas, and extinct ones such as the strange Macrauchenia, which resembled a giant guanaco. His thoughts on lifespan, asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction developed in his B notebook around mid-July on to variation in offspring to adapt & alter the race to changing world explaining the Galapagos tortoises, mockingbirds and rheas. He sketched branching descent, then a genealogical branching of a single evolutionary tree, in which It is absurd to talk of one animal being higher than another, discarding Lamarcks independent lineages progressing to higher forms.Overwork, illness, and marriageSee also: Charles Darwins healthWhile developing this intensive study of transmutation, Darwin became mired in more work. Still rewriting his Journal, he took on editing and publishing the expert reports on his collections, and with Henslows help obtained a Treasury grant of ?1,000 to sponsor this multi-volume Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, a sum equivalent to about ?82,000 in 2015. He stretched the funding to include his planned books on geology, and agreed to unrealistic dates with the publisher. As the Victorian era began, Darwin pressed on with writing his Journal, and in August 1837 began correcting printers proofs.Darwins health suffered under the pressure. On 20 September he had an uncomfortable palpitation of the heart, so his doctors urged him to knock off all work and live in the country for a few weeks. After visiting Shrewsbury he joined his Wedgwood relatives at Maer Hall, Staffordshire, but found them too eager for tales of his travels to give him much rest. His charming, intelligent, and cultured cousin Emma Wedgwood, nine months older than Darwin, was nursing his invalid aunt. His uncle Jos pointed out an area of ground where cinders had disappeared under loam and suggested that this might have been the work of earthworms, inspiring a new & important theory on their role in soil formation, which Darwin presented at the Geological Society on 1 November.William Whewell pushed Darwin to take on the duties of Secretary of the Geological Society. After initially declining the work, he accepted the post in March 1838. Despite the grind of writing and editing the Beagle reports, Darwin made remarkable progress on transmutation, taking every opportunity to question expert naturalists and, unconventionally, people with practical experience such as farmers and pigeon fanciers. Over time, his research drew on information from his relatives and children, the family butler, neighbours, colonists and former shipmates. He included mankind in his speculations from the outset, and on seeing an orangutan in the zoo on 28 March 1838 noted its childlike behaviour.Darwin chose to marry his cousin, Emma Wedgwood.The strain took a toll, and by June he was being laid up for days on end with stomach problems, headaches and heart symptoms. For the rest of his life, he was repeatedly incapacitated with episodes of stomach pains, vomiting, severe boils, palpitations, trembling and other symptoms, particularly during times of stress, such as attending meetings or making social visits. The cause of Darwins illness remained unknown, and attempts at treatment had little success.On 23 June, he took a break and went geologising in Scotland. He visited Glen Roy in glorious weather to see the parallel roads cut into the hillsides at three heights. He later published his view that these were marine raised beaches, but then had to accept that they were shorelines of a proglacial lake.Fully recuperated, he returned to Shrewsbury in July. Used to jotting down daily notes on animal breeding, he scrawled rambling thoughts about career and prospects on two scraps of paper, one with columns headed Marry and Not Marry. Advantages included constant companion and a friend in old age … better than a dog anyhow, against points such as less money for books and terrible loss of time. Having decided in favour, he discussed it with his father, then went to visit Emma on 29 July. He did not get around to proposing, but against his fathers advice he mentioned his ideas on transmutation.Malthus and natural selectionContinuing his research in London, Darwins wide reading now included the sixth edition of Malthuss An Essay on the Principle of Population, and on 28 September 1838 he noted its assertion that human population, when unchecked, goes on doubling itself every twenty five years, or increases in a geometrical ratio, a geometric progression so that population soon exceeds food supply in what is known as a Malthusian catastrophe. Darwin was well prepared to compare this to de Candolles warring of the species of plants and the struggle for existence among wildlife, explaining how numbers of a species kept roughly stable. As species always breed beyond available resources, favourable variations would make organisms better at surviving and passing the variations on to their offspring, while unfavourable variations would be lost. He wrote that the final cause of all this wedging, must be to sort out proper structure, & adapt it to changes, so that One may say there is a force like a hundred thousand wedges trying force into every kind of adapted structure into the gaps of in the economy of nature, or rather forming gaps by thrusting out weaker ones. This would result in the formation of new species. As he later wrote in his AutoBiography, :In October 1838, that is, fifteen months after I had begun my systematic enquiry, I happened to read for amusement Malthus on Population, and being well prepared to appreciate the struggle for existence which everywhere goes on from long-continued observation of the habits of animals and plants, it at once struck me that under these circumstances favourable variations would tend to be preserved, and unfavourable ones to be destroyed. The result of this would be the formation of new species. Here, then, I had at last got a theory by which to work…By mid December, Darwin saw a similarity between farmers picking the best stock in selective breeding, and a Malthusian Nature selecting from chance variants so that every part of newly acquired structure is fully practical and perfected, thinking this comparison a beautiful part of my theory. He later called his theory natural selection, an analogy with what he termed the artificial selection of selective breeding.On 11 November, he returned to Maer and proposed to Emma, once more telling her his ideas. She accepted, then in exchanges of loving letters she showed how she valued his openness in sharing their differences, also expressing her strong Unitarian beliefs and concerns that his honest doubts might separate them in the afterlife. While he was house-hunting in London, bouts of illness continued and Emma wrote urging him to get some rest, almost prophetically remarking So dont be ill any more my dear Charley till I can be with you to nurse you. He found what they called Macaw Cottage (because of its gaudy interiors) in Gower Street, then moved his museum in over Christmas. On 24 January 1839, Darwin was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS).On 29 January, Darwin and Emma Wedgwood were married at Maer in an Anglican ceremony arranged to suit the Unitarians, then immediately caught the train to London and their new home.Geology books, barnacles, evolutionary researchFor more details on this topic, see Development of Darwins theory.Darwin in 1842 with his eldest son, William Erasmus DarwinDarwin now had the framework of his theory of natural selection by which to work, as his prime hobby. His research included extensive experimental selective breeding of plants and animals, finding evidence that species were not fixed and investigating many detailed ideas to refine and substantiate his theory. For fifteen years this work was in the background to his main occupation of writing on geology and publishing expert reports on the Beagle collections.When FitzRoys Narrative was published in May 1839, Darwins Journal and Remarks was such a success as the third volume that later that year it was published on its own. Early in 1842, Darwin wrote about his ideas to Charles Lyell, who noted that his ally denies seeing a beginning to each crop of species.Darwins book The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs on his theory of atoll formation was published in May 1842 after more than three years of work, and he then wrote his first pencil sketch of his theory of natural selection. To escape the pressures of London, the family moved to rural Down House in September. On 11 January 1844, Darwin mentioned his theorising to the botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker, writing with melodramatic humour it is like confessing a murder. Hooker replied There may in my opinion have been a series of productions on different spots, & also a gradual change of species. I shall be delighted to hear how you think that this change may have taken place, as no presently conceived opinions satisfy me on the subject.Darwins sandwalk at Down House was his usual Thinking Path.By July, Darwin had expanded his sketch into a 230-page Essay, to be expanded with his research results if he died prematurely. In November, the anonymously published sensational best-seller Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation brought wide interest in transmutation. Darwin scorned its amateurish geology and zoology, but carefully reviewed his own arguments. Controversy erupted, and it continued to sell well despite contemptuous dismissal by scientists.Darwin completed his third geological book in 1846. He now renewed a fascination and expertise in marine invertebrates, dating back to his student days with Grant, by dissecting and classifying the barnacles he had collected on the voyage, enjoying observing beautiful structures and thinking about comparisons with allied structures. In 1847, Hooker read the Essay and sent notes that provided Darwin with the calm critical feedback that he needed, but would not commit himself and questioned Darwins opposition to continuing acts of creation.In an attempt to improve his chronic ill health, Darwin went in 1849 to Dr. James Gullys Malvern spa and was surprised to find some benefit from hydrotherapy. Then, in 1851, his treasured daughter Annie fell ill, reawakening his fears that his illness might be hereditary, and after a long series of crises she died.In eight years of work on barnacles (Cirripedia), Darwins theory helped him to find homologies showing that slightly changed body parts served different functions to meet new conditions, and in some genera he found minute males parasitic on hermaphrodites, showing an intermediate stage in evolution of distinct sexes. In 1853, it earned him the Royal Societys Royal Medal, and it made his reputation as a biologist. In 1854 he became a Fellow of the Linnean Society of London, gaining postal access to its library. He began a major reassessment of his theory of species, and in November realised that divergence in the character of descendants could be explained by them becoming adapted to diversified places in the economy of nature.Publication of the theory of natural selectionFor more details on this topic, see Publication of Darwins theory.Charles Darwin, aged 46 in 1855, by then working towards publication of his theory of natural selection. He wrote to Hooker about this portrait, if I really have as bad an expression, as my photograph gives me, how I can have one single friend is surprising.By the start of 1856, Darwin was investigating whether eggs and seeds could survive travel across seawater to spread species across oceans. Hooker increasingly doubted the traditional view that species were fixed, but their young friend Thomas Henry Huxley was firmly against the transmutation of species. Lyell was intrigued by Darwins speculations without realising their extent. When he read a paper by Alfred Russel Wallace, On the Law which has Regulated the Introduction of New Species, he saw similarities with Darwins thoughts and urged him to publish to establish precedence. Though Darwin saw no threat, on 14 May 1856 he began writing a short paper. Finding answers to difficult questions held him up repeatedly, and he expanded his plans to a big book on species titled Natural Selection, which was to include his note on Man. He continued his researches, obtaining information and specimens from naturalists worldwide including Wallace who was working in Borneo. In mid-1857 he added a chapter heading, Theory applied to Races of Man, but then left out this topic. On 5 September 1857, Darwin sent the American botanist Asa Gray a detailed outline of his ideas, including an abstract of Natural Selection, which omitted human origins and sexual selection. In December, Darwin received a letter from Wallace asking if the book would examine human origins. He responded that he would avoid that subject, so surrounded with prejudices, while encouraging Wallaces theorising and adding that I go much further than you.Darwins book was only partly written when, on 18 June 1858, he received a paper from Wallace describing natural selection. Shocked that he had been forestalled, Darwin sent it on that day to Lyell, as requested by Wallace, and although Wallace had not asked for publication, Darwin suggested he would send it to any journal that Wallace chose. His family was in crisis with children in the village dying of scarlet fever, and he put matters in the hands of his friends. After some discussion, Lyell and Hooker decided on a joint presentation at the Linnean Society on 1 July of On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties, and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection. On the evening of 28 June, Darwins baby son died of scarlet fever after almost a week of severe illness, and he was too distraught to attend.There was little immediate attention to this announcement of the theory, the president of the Linnean Society remarked in May 1859 that the year had not been marked by any revolutionary discoveries. Only one review rankled enough for Darwin to recall it later, Professor Samuel Haughton of Dublin claimed that all that was new in them was false, and what was true was old. Darwin struggled for thirteen months to produce an abstract of his big book, suffering from ill health but getting constant encouragement from his scientific friends. Lyell arranged to have it published by John Murray.On the Origin of Species proved unexpectedly popular, with the entire stock of 1,250 copies oversubscribed when it went on sale to booksellers on 22 November 1859. In the book, Darwin set out one long argument of detailed observations, inferences and consideration of anticipated objections. In making the case for common descent, he included evidence of homologies between humans and other mammals.[III] Having outlined sexual selection, he hinted that it could explain differences between human races.[IV] He avoided explicit discussion of human origins, but implied the significance of his work with the sentence, Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history.[IV] His theory is simply stated in the introduction:As many more individuals of each species are born than can possibly survive, and as, consequently, there is a frequently recurring struggle for existence, it follows that any being, if it vary however slightly in any manner profitable to itself, under the complex and sometimes varying conditions of life, will have a better chance of surviving, and thus be naturally selected. From the strong principle of inheritance, any selected variety will tend to propagate its new and modified form.At the end of the book he concluded that:There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one, and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved.The last word was the only variant of evolved in the first five editions of the book. Evolutionism at that time was associated with other concepts, most commonly with embryological development, and Darwin first used the word evolution in The Descent of Man in 1871, before adding it in 1872 to the 6th edition of The Origin of Species.Responses to publicationDuring the Darwin familys 1868 holiday in her Isle of Wight cottage, Julia Margaret Cameron took portraits showing the bushy beard Darwin grew between 1862 and 1866.An 1871 caricature following publication of The Descent of Man was typical of many showing Darwin with an ape body, identifying him in popular culture as the leading author of evolutionary theory.For more details on this topic, see Reaction to On the Origin of Species.The book aroused international interest, with less controversy than had greeted the popular Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation. Though Darwins illness kept him away from the public debates, he eagerly scrutinised the scientific response, commenting on press cuttings, reviews, articles, satires and caricatures, and corresponded on it with colleagues worldwide. The book did not explicitly discus
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