Ion Luca Caragiale Net Worth 2023 Update – Short bio, age, height, weight

Ion Luca Caragiale Net Worth

How much is Ion Luca Caragiale worth? For this question we spent 21 hours on research (Wikipedia, Youtube, we read books in libraries, etc) to review the post.

The main source of income: Authors
Total Net Worth at the moment 2023 year – is about $193,3 Million.

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Biography

Ion Luca Caragiale information Birth date: February 13, 1852, I. L. Caragiale, D?mbovi?a, Romania Death date: June 9, 1912, Berlin, Germany Birth place: Haimanalele, Ploiesti, Romania Profession:Writer Children:Mateiu Caragiale, Luca Caragiale, Ecaterina LogadiBooks:?n vreme de r?zboi, D-ale carnavalului, Kir Ianulea, Moments

Height, Weight

:How tall is Ion Luca Caragiale – 1,72m.
How much weight is Ion Luca Caragiale – 88kg

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Ion Luca Caragiale Net Worth
Ion Luca Caragiale Net Worth
Ion Luca Caragiale Net Worth
Ion Luca Caragiale Net Worth

Wiki

Ion Luca Caragiale (Romanian pronunciation: [i?on ?luka kara?d??jale], commonly referred to as I. L. Caragiale, February 13 [O.S. February 1] 1852 – June 9, 1912) was a Romanian playwright, short story writer, poet, theater manager, political commentator and journalist. He is considered one of the greatest Romanian playwrights and writers, a leading representative of local humor, and a main representative of Junimea, an influential literary society with which he parted during the second half of his life.Caragiale&#39, s work, spanning four decades, covers the ground between Neoclassicism, Realism, and Naturalism, building on an original synthesis of foreign and local influences. His plays constituted an important venue for criticism of late 19th-century Romanian society, while in later works of fiction Caragiale adopted the fantasy genre or turned to historical fiction.Caragiale oscillated between the liberal current and conservatism. Most of his satirical works target the liberal republicans and the National Liberals. He clashed with National Liberal leaders such as Dimitrie Sturdza and Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, and was a lifelong adversary of the Symbolist poet Alexandru Macedonski. As a result of these conflicts his access to the cultural establishment was barred for several decades. During the 1890s, Caragiale rallied with the radical movement of George Panu, before associating with the Conservative Party. After having decided to settle in Berlin, he came to voice strong criticism for Romanian politicians of all colors in the wake of the 1907 Romanian Peasants&#39, Revolt, and ultimately joined the Conservative-Democratic Party.Ion Luca was the nephew of Costache and Iorgu Caragiale, who were major figures of mid-19th-century Romanian theater. His sons Mateiu and Luca were both modernist writers.Although he is unanimously accepted as the greatest playwright in the history of the Romanian literature, Caragiale is not internationally known. Eugen Ionesco considered him &quot, the greatest of the unknown geniuses&quot, .
Biography,Background and nameIon Luca Caragiale was born into a family of Greek descent, whose members first arrived in Wallachia soon after 1812, during the rule of Prince Ioan Gheorghe Caragea—Stefan Caragiali, as his grandfather was known locally, worked as a cook for the court in Bucharest. Ion Lucas father, who reportedly originated from the Ottoman capital of Istanbul, settled in Prahova County as the curator of the Margineni Monastery (which, at the time, belonged to the Greek Orthodox Saint Catherines Monastery of Mount Sinai). Known to locals as Luca Caragiali, he later built a reputation as a lawyer and judge in Ploiesti, and married Ecaterina, the daughter of a merchant from the Transylvanian town of Brasov. Her maiden name was given as Alexovici (Alexevici) or as Karaboa (Caraboa). She is known to have been Greek herself, and, according to historian Lucian Nastasa, some of her relatives were Hungarian members of the Tabay family. The Caragiali couple also had a daughter, named Lenci.Ion Lucas uncles, Costache and Iorgu Caragiale, also known as Caragiali, managed theater troupes and were very influential figures in the development of early Romanian theater—in Wallachia and Moldavia alike.[11] Luca Caragiali had himself performed with his brothers during his youth, before opting to settle down.[12] All three had stood criticism for not taking part in the Wallachian Revolution, and defended themselves through a brochure printed in 1848.[13] The brothers Caragiali had two sisters, Ecaterina and Anastasia.[14]Especially in his old age, the writer emphasized his familys humble background and his status as a self-made man.[14][15] On one occasion, he defined the landscape of his youth as the quagmires of Ploiesti.[16] Although it prompted his biographer Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea to define him as a proletarian, Caragiales account was disputed by several other researchers, who noted that the family had a good social standing.Ion Luca Caragiale was discreet about his ethnic origin for the larger part of his life. In parallel, his foreign roots came to the attention of his adversaries, who used them as arguments in various polemics.[14][17][18] As his relations with Caragiale degenerated into hostility, Mihai Eminescu is known to have referred to his former friend as that Greek swindler.[19] Aware of such treatment, the writer considered all references to his lineage to be insults.[14] On several occasions, he preferred to indicate that he was of obscure birth.Caragiale in Balkan costume, photographed ca. 1900Nevertheless, as literary critic Tudor Vianu noted, Caragiales outlook on life was explicitly Balkanic and Oriental, which, in Vianus view, mirrored a type which must have been found in his lineage.[20] A similar opinion was expressed by Paul Zarifopol, who speculated that Caragiales conservative mindset was possibly owed to the lazyness of one true Oriental[21] (elsewhere, he referred to the writer as a lazy southerner, fitted with definitely supranormal intelligence and imagination).[22] In his main work on the history of Romanian literature, George Calinescu included Caragiale among a group of Balkan writers, whose middle class status and often foreign origin, he argued, set them apart irrespective of their period—others in this category were, in chronological order, Anton Pann, Tudor Arghezi, Ion Minulescu, Urmuz, Mateiu Caragiale, and Ion Barbu.[23] In contrast, critic Garabet Ibraileanu proposed that Caragiales Wallachian origin was of particular importance, serving to explain his political choices and alleged social bias.[24]On one occasion, Caragiale mentioned that his paternal grandfather was a Greek cook.[14] In several contexts, he referred to his roots as being in the island of Hydra. In one of his photographs, he posed in Oriental costume and sitting cross-legged, which was interpreted by Vianu as an additional reference to his Balkan background.[25] Two of his biographers, Zarifopol and Serban Cioculescu, noted that a section of Caragiales fairy tale Kir Ianulea was a likely self-reference: in that fragment of text, the Christian Devil, disguised as an Arvanite trader, is shown taking pride in his Romanian language skills.[26]Investigations carried out by the Center of Theatric Research in Athens, Greece and made public in 2002 offered an alternative take on the Caragiales origin. According to this perspective, Stefan Caragiali was a native of Kefalonia, and his original surname, Karaialis, was changed on Prince Carageas request. Various authors also believe that Caragiales ancestors were Albanian[11] or Aromanian.[27]Originally, Ion Luca was known as Ioanne L. Caragiali.[28][29] His family and friends knew him as Iancu or, rarely, Iancutu—both being antiquated hypocoristics of Ion.[30] The definitive full version of his features the syllable ca twice in a row, which is generally avoided in Romanian due to its scatological connotations. It has however become one of the few cacophonies accepted by the Romanian Academy.[31]Early yearsThe adolescent CaragialeBorn in the village of Haimanale, Prahova County (the present-day I. L. Caragiale commune, Dambovita County), Caragiale was educated in Ploiesti. During his early years, as he later indicated, he learned reading and writing with a teacher at the Romanian Orthodox Church of Saint George.[14][32] Soon after, he was taught literary Romanian by the Transylvanian-born Bazilie Dragosescu (whose influence on his use of the language he was to acknowledge in one of his later works).[33] At the age of seven, he witnessed enthusiastic celebrations of the Danubian Principalities union, with the election of Moldavias Alexandru Ioan Cuza as Prince of Wallachia,[34] Cuzas subsequent reforms were to be an influence on the political choices Caragiale made in his old age. The new ruler visited his primary school later in 1859, being received with enthusiasm by Dragosescu and all his pupils.[35]Caragiale completed gymnasium at the Sfintii Petru si Pavel school in the city, and never pursued any form of higher education.[36] He was probably enlisted directly in the second grade, as records do not show him to have attended or graduated the first year.[37] Notably, Caragiale was taught history by Constantin Iennescu, who was later the mayor of Ploiesti.[38] The young Caragiale opted to follow in his uncles footsteps, and was taught declamation and mimic art by Costache at the latters theater school in Bucharest, where he was accompanied by his mother and sister.[11][39] It is also probable that he was a supernumerary actor for the National Theater Bucharest.[32] He was not able to find full employment in this field, and, around the age of 18, worked as a copyist for the Prahova County Tribunal.[40] Throughout his life, Caragiale refused to talk about his training in the theater, and hid it from the people closest to him (including his wife Alexandrina Burelly, who came from an upper middle class environment).[41]In 1866, Caragiale witnessed Cuzas toppling by a coalition of conservatives and liberals—as he later acknowledged in his Grand Hotel Victoria Romana, he and his friends agreed to support the move by voting yes during a subsequent plebiscite, and, with tacit approval from the new authorities, even did so several times each.[42] By the age of 18, he was an enthusiastic supporter of the liberal current, and sympathized with its republican ideals. In 1871, he witnessed the Republic of Ploiesti—a short-lived stated created by the liberal groups, in an attempt to oust Domnitor Carol I (the future King of Romania).[43] Later in life, as his opinions veered towards conservatism, Caragiale ridiculed both the attempted coup detat and his participation in it.[44]He returned to Bucharest later that year, after manager Mihail Pascaly hired him as one of the prompts at the National Theater in the capital, a period about which he reminisced in his Din carnetul unui vechi sufleur.[11][45] The poet Mihai Eminescu, with whom Ion Luca was to have cordial relations as well as rivalries, had previously been employed for the same position by the manager Iorgu Caragiale.[46] In addition to his growing familiarity with the repertoire, the young Caragiale educated himself by reading the philosophical works of Enlightenment-era philosophes.[11] It was also recorded that, at some point between 1870 and 1872, he was employed in the same capacity by the Moldavian National Theater in Iasi.[47] During the period, Caragiale also proofread for various publications and worked as a tutor.[38]Literary debutCaragiale in his youthIon Luca made his literary debut in 1873, at the age of 21, with poems and humorous chronicles printed in G. Dem. Teodorescus liberal-inspired satirical magazine Ghimpele. He published relatively few articles under various pen names—among them Car., the contraction of his family name, and the more elaborate Palicar.[48] He mostly performed basic services for the editorial staff and its printing press, given that, after Luca Caragiali died in 1870, he was the sole provider for his mother and sister.[49] Following his return to Bucharest, he became even more involved with the radical and republican wing of the liberal trend—a movement commonly referred to as the Reds. As he later confessed, he frequently attended its congresses, witnessing the speeches held by Reds leader C. A. Rosetti, he thus became intimately acquainted with a Populist discourse, which he later parodied in his works.[50] Working for Ghimpele, he made the acquaintance of republican writer N. T. Orasanu.[51]Several of his articles for Ghimpele were sarcastic in tone, and targeted various literary figures of the day. In June 1874, Caragiale amused himself at the expense of N. D. Popescu-Popnedea, the author of popular almanacs, whose taste he questioned.[14][52] Soon after, he ridiculed the rising poet Alexandru Macedonski, who had publicized his claim that he was a Count Geniadevsky, and thus of Polish origin.[53] The article contributed by Caragiale, in which he speculated that Macedonski (referred to with the anagram Aamsky) was using the name solely because it reminded people of the word genius,[54] was the first act in a long polemic between the two literary figures. Caragiale turned Aamsky into a character on his own, envisaging his death as a result of overwork in editing magazines for the countrys political development.[52]Caragiale also contributed poetry to Ghimpele: two sonnets, and a series of epigrams (one of which was another attack on Macedonski).[55] The first of these works, an 1873 sonnet dedicated to baritone Agostino Mazzoli, is believed to have been his first contribution to the belles-lettres (as opposed to journalism).[11][56]In 1896, Macedonski reflected with irony:As early as 1872, the clients of some beer gardens in the capital have had the occasion to welcome among them of a noisy young man, a bizarre spirit who seemed destined, were he to have devoted himself to letters or the arts, to be entirely original. Indeed, this young mans appearance, his hasty gestures, his sarcastic smile […], his always irritated and mocking voice, as well as his sophistic reasoning easily attracted attention.[54]Over the following years, Caragiale collaborated on various mouthpieces of the newly created National Liberal Party, and, in May 1877, created the satirical magazine Claponul.[57] Later in 1877, he also translated a series of French-language plays for the National Theater: Alexandre Parodis Rome vaincue (it was showcased in late 1877-early 1878),[58] Paul Derouledes LHetman, and Eugene Scribes Une camaraderie.[59] Together with the French republican Frederic Dame, he also headed a short-lived journal, Natiunea Romana.[60]It was also then that he contributed a serialized overview of Romanian theater, published by the newspaper Romania Libera, in which Caragiale attacked the inferiority of Romanian dramaturgy and the widespread recourse to plagiarism.[61] According to literary historian Perpessicius, the series constituted one of the most solid critical contributions to the history of our theater.[62]Macedonski later alleged that, in his contributions to the liberal newspapers, the young writer had libeled several Conservative Party politicians—when researching this period, Serban Cioculescu concluded that the accusation was false, and that only one polemical article on a political topic could be traced back to Caragiale.[63]Timpul and ClaponulThe Russian Army in Bucharest, print in The Illustrated London News (1877)The young journalist began drifting away from National Liberal politics soon after 1876, when the group came to power with Ion Bratianu as Premier.[64] According to many versions, Eminescu, who was working on the editorial staff of the main Conservative newspaper, Timpul, asked to be joined by Caragiale and the Transylvanian prose writer Ioan Slavici, who were both employed by the paper.[11][65] This order of events remains unclear, and depends on sources saying that Eminescu was employed by the paper in March 1876.[66] Other testimonies indicate that it was actually Eminescu who arrived last, beginning work in January 1878.[66]Slavici later recalled that three of them engaged in lengthy discussions at Timpuls headquarters on Calea Victoriei and in Eminescus house on Sfintilor Street, where they planned to co-author a massive work on Romanian grammar.[59] According to literary historian Tudor Vianu, the relationship between Caragiale and Eminescu partly replicated that between the latter and the Moldavian Ion Creanga.[59]Over that period, Timpul and Eminescu were engaged in a harsh polemic with the Reds, and especially their leader Rosetti.[67] It was also then that Romania entered the Russo-Turkish War as a means to secure her complete independence from the Ottoman Empire.[67] Caragiale reportedly took little interest in editing Timpul over that period, but it is assumed that several unsigned chronicles, covering foreign events, are his contributions (as are two short story adaptations of works by the American author Edgar Allan Poe, both published by Timpul in spring-summer 1878).[64] The newspaper was actually issued as a collaborative effort, which makes it hard to identify the authors of many other articles.[68] According to Slavici, Caragiale occasionally completed unfinished contributions by Eminescu whenever the latter had to leave unexpectedly.[69]He concentrated instead on Claponul, which he edited and wrote single-handedly for the duration of the war.[70] Zarifopol believed that, through the series of light satires he contributed for the magazine, Caragiale was trying out his style, and thus entertaining the suburbanites, in order to study them.[21] A piece he authored of the time featured an imaginary barber and amateur artist, Nastase Stirbu, who drew a direct parallel between art, literature and cutting hair—both the theme and the character were to be reused in his later works.[71] Similarly, a fragment of prose referring to two inseparable friends, Sotrocea and Motrocea, was to serve as the first draft for the Lache and Mache series in Momente si schite.[21] Another notable work of the time is Pohod la sosea, a rhyming reportage documenting the Russian Armys arrival to Bucharest, and the street reactions to the event.[72] Claponul ceased publication in early 1878.[73]Junimea receptionIt was probably through Eminescu that Ion Luca Caragiale came into contact with the Iasi-based Junimea, the influential literary society which was also a center for anti-National Liberal politics.[59] Initially, Caragiale met with Junimea founder, the critic and politician Titu Maiorescu, during a visit to the house of Dr. Kremnitz, physician to the family of Domnitor Carol I.[74] The doctors wife and Maiorescus sister-in-law, Mite Kremnitz, was herself a writer, and later became Eminescus lover.[19][75] During several meetings, Caragiale was asked by Maiorescu to write down a series of aphorisms in an album. His concise musings are contemplative in tone, and some of them constitute evidence of both misanthropy[76] and, to a certain degree, misogyny.[77]In 1878, Caragiale and Maiorescu left for Iasi, where they attended Junimea s 15th anniversary, and where Caragiale read his first draft of the celebrated play O noapte furtunoasa.[78] The work, ridiculing the petite bourgeoisie s mix of liberal values and demagogy over a background of superficial culture, immediately struck a chord with the majority-conservative grouping.[79] Its reception was one of the pivotal moments in the second period of Junimea activities, characterized by the societys expansion to Bucharest and its patronage of the arts.[80] Other writers who marked this stage were Creanga, Slavici, Vasile Alecsandri and Vasile Conta—together with Caragiale, they soon became the foremost representatives of Junimea s direct influence on literature.[81] To varying degrees, they all complimented the main element of Junimist discourse, Maiorescu criticism of forms without a foundation—the concept itself referred to the negative impact of modernization, which, Junimea argued, had by then only benefited the upper strata of Romanian society, leaving the rest with an incomplete and increasingly falsified culture.[11][82]Ion Luca Caragiale also associated with Junimeas mouthpiece, Convorbiri Literare, and continued to contribute there even after 1885, when the society began to decline in importance.[83] It was here that all his major comedies were first presented to the public.[11] He did not, however, join Petre P. Carps movement, which aimed to consolidate Junimea as a third force in Romanian politics, and remained a staunch independent over the following years.[84] Caragiale was nevertheless associated with the Junimist journal Constitutionalul.[85]In early January 1879, O noapte furtunoasa was first staged by the National Theater.[86] Its production brought the first association between Caragiale and comedian Mihai Mateescu, who went on to portray some of his most popular characters.[87] The play was a hit, and acclaim reached Caragiale despite the fact that he had refused to have his name printed on the posters.[88] Caragiale was soon outraged to discover that, by the second staging, his text had been toned down by the government-appointed Head of Theaters, the National Liberal Ion Ghica.[89] When he asked for an official explanation, O noapte furtunoasa was removed from the seasons program.[90] Over the following years, independent troupes staged the play or its plagiarized versions for their own benefit.[91] It was restored to the National Theaters repertoire in 1883, and was so successful that state theaters in cities such as Craiova and Iasi made efforts to have it included in their own programs.[92]Caragiale subsequently took part in directing his plays at the National Theater, where his main collaborator was actor and manager Constantin I. Nottara.[93] Together, they are credited with having put a stop to the techniques favored by Mihail Pascaly, replacing emphatic declamation with a more natural and studied perspective on acting.[93]Inspector generalIn 1880, he printed Conu Leonida fata cu reactiunea—a play centered on an uncultured Red pensioner and his naive wife, who overhear a street brawl and believe that a revolution is imminent.[11][51] It was also then that his first memoirs from the world of theater were published, which coincided with the release of Ion Creangas own book of memoirs, the well-known volume Amintiri din copilarie.[21]Accompanied by Maiorescu, Caragiale left for Austria-Hungary. In Vienna, the two of them attended a staging of William Shakespeares A Midsummer Nights Dream, hosted by the Burgtheater.[94] He was practically unemployed after returning, and, in 1881, gave up his position at Timpul.[94] Nevertheless, that autumn, V. A. Urechia, Minister of Education in the Ion Bratianu National Liberal cabinet, assigned him the office of inspector general for the Moldavian counties of Suceava and Neamt.[94] Profiting from the proximity between his new residence and Iasi, Ion Luca Caragiale became a regular participant in Junimeas activities, becoming good friends with some of its most important representatives (Iacob Negruzzi, Vasile Pogor, and Petru Th. Missir).[95] With Negruzzi, he dramatized Hatmanul Baltag, a short story by Nicolae Gane.[96]He became close to Veronica Micle, a woman writer who was also Eminescus mistress.[97] For a while, Caragiale and Micle had a love affair, although she continued to see the poet.[19][98] This caused the friendship between Eminescu and Caragiale to sour.[19][99] The former was jealous of Cargiales relations with Micle, while she resented the poets affair with Mite Kremnitz.[19]Ion Luca and Mateiu Caragiale before 1900Just one year after, Caragiale was moved back to Wallachia, becoming inspector general in Arges and Valcea.[94] He was ultimately stripped of this position in 1884, and found himself on the verge of bankruptcy, he thus accepted the lowly position of clerk for the civil registry administration.[94] It is probably during this period that his melodrama O soacra was written and published—Caragiale, who was aware of its faults, indicated that it was a work from his youth, and dated it to 1876.[100] His account is challenged by several details in the text.[101]In June 1883, while visiting Maiorescus house, he received news that Eminescu had suffered the first in a series of dementia attacks (owing to a disease that was to kill him in 1889).[102] Caragiale reportedly broke into tears.[103] This succession of events also saw him becoming involved in conflicts among Junimea members: like Pogor, Caragiale objected to the style of Vasile Alecsandri, an aged Junimist poet, and was shocked to find out that he was ridiculing the much younger Eminescu.[104] He thus decided to criticize Alecsandri in public, during a March 1884 meeting of the society—Maiorescu recorded in his private notes that […] Caragiale [was] aggressive and rude toward Alecsandri.[105]Caragiales wealthy relative, Catinca Momulo Cardini (commonly known Catinca Momuloaia), who was the widow of a famous restaurateur and the cousin of his mother Ecaterina, died in 1885, and the writer had the prospect of inheriting a large fortune.[106] He nonetheless became involved in a trial with Momuloaias other relatives, which prolonged itself until the early 20th century.[107]First major successesMonths after this, his new comedy, O scrisoare pierduta, was first shown to the public. A fresco of conflicting political machines, provincial corruption, petty ambitions, and incoherent demagogy, it was an instant hit with the public.[108] Arguably the high point of Caragiales career,[94] it became one of the best-known works of its kind in Romanian literature. Maiorescu was pleased by its success, and believed that it was a sign of maturity in Romanian society, which, as he put it, was starting to laugh at the National Liberal rhetoric.[109]Ion Luca Caragiale was romantically involved with an unmarried young woman, Maria Constantinescu, who worked for the Bucharest Town Hall—in 1885, she gave birth to Mateiu, whom Caragiale recognized as his son.[110]First printed version of D-ale carnavalului, as published in Convorbiri Literare (May 1885)During the same year, Caragiales D-ale carnavalului, a lighter satire of suburban morals and amorous misadventures, was received with booing and heckling by members of the public—critics deemed it immoral, due to its frank depiction of adultery gone unpunished.[11][111] The controversy saw Maiorescu taking his friends side and publishing an essay highly critical of National Liberal cultural tenets (titled Comediile domnului Caragiale, it was to be reprinted in 1889, as a preface to Caragiales collected plays).[112] In it, the critic, who was influenced by the ideas of Arthur Schopenhauer, argued that Caragiale had not failed in uplifting the human spirit, precisely because he had risen above both didacticism and egotism (see Arthur Schopenhauers aesthetics).[113] In reference to accusations that the play was unpatriotic, Maiorescu answered:[…] the present-day poems with a political intent, the odes on solemn days, the theatrical compositions for dynastic glorifications are a simulacrum of art, and not the real art. Even patriotism, the most important sense for the citizen of a state in his actions as a citizen, has no place in art as an ad-hoc form of patriotism […]. Is there a single lyric of French patriotism in Corneille? Is there any national spouting in Racine? Is there one in Moliere? Is there one in Shakespeare? Is there one in Goethe?[114]The article played an essential part in reconciling the dramatist to the general public, but also led to a polemic between Maiorescu and the philosopher Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea (a Marxist who claimed that Maiorescu was contradicting himself).[115][116] Dobrogeanu-Gherea argued in favor of Caragiales work, but considered D-ale carnavalului to be his weakest play.[117]Theater leadership and marriageDespite his earlier conflicts with the National Liberals, Caragiale, who still faced problems in making a living, agreed to contribute pieces for the party press, and thus briefly associated with Vointa Nationala (a journal issued by historian and politician Alexandru Dimitrie Xenopol).[118] Under the pen name Luca, he contributed two theater chronicles.[84] In parallel, he taught classes at the privately run Sfantul Gheorghe High School in Bucharest.[119] This episode of his career ended in 1888, when Maiorescu ascended to the office of Minister of Education in the Teodor Rosetti cabinet (formed by a group of Junimist Conservatives).[119] Caragiale requested to be appointed Head of Theaters, which also implied leadership of the National Theater. Although Maiorescu was initially opposed, Caragiale eventually received the post.[120] The ultimate decision was attributed to Romanias Queen Elisabeth having asked Maiorescu to reconsider,[121] or, alternatively, to the support offered by the influential Junimist Petre P. Carp.Alexandrina BurellyThe appointment caused some controversy at the time: Ion Luca Caragiale, unlike all his predecessors (the incumbent C. I. Stancescu included), was both a professional in the field and a person of modest origins.[119] As the National Liberals intensified their campaign against him, the dramatist drafted an open letter for the Bucharest press, outlining his intentions and explaining the circumstances of his appointment.[122] In it, he attributed his own rise to the interest Junimea had taken in his work, while defending the literary society, which was, as he put it, lost from the public eye at a time of political obscurity.[119] Reviewing his own merits as a writer and manager, he elaborated and later put into practice a program for state-run theaters—according to Vianu, it signified punctuality and rigor.[123] He nonetheless resigned at the end of the season, and resumed his literary activities.[123]In January 1889, he married Alexandrina, the daughter of architect Gaetano Burelly. She was a member of the Bucharest elite, which served to improve Ion Luca Caragiales social standing.[41] They had two children of their own: Luca (known as Luky, born 1893) and Ecaterina (or Tuschi, born 1894, later married Logadi).[124] Several years later, the Caragiales brought Mateiu into their home, and Ion Luca enrolled him at Anghel Demetrescus Sfantul Gheorghe College.[124]Clash with the AcademyEarly in 1890, at the same time as his volume of collected works, Caragiale published and staged his rural-themed tragedy Napasta—both writings were presented for consideration to the Romanian Academy, in view of receiving its annual prize, the Ion Heliade Radulescu Award. Caragiales conflict with the National Liberals reached its peak, as two of their representatives inside the forum, historian Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu and future Premier Dimitrie Sturdza, reported unfavorably.[125] Additional criticism was voiced by the poet Gheorghe Sion, who also defended the a work by Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea (itself up for review).[126] When the Junimist Iacob Negruzzi defended his friend, Sturdza contrasted Caragiales works with his own version of didacticism, claiming that it altogether lacked a moral and national quality.[127]Both Hasdeu and Sturdza hinted at the influence exercised over Caragiale by their adversary Maiorescu, and went on to compare the dramatist with foreign writers such as Mite Kremnitz and the Jewish Josef B. Brociner.[128] For the two liberal leaders, Kremnitz and Brociner, who had authored works critical of the Romanian establishment, were aiding to construct a negative image of the Romanian nation.[128] Hasdeu insisted that Caragiale was himself creating problems for the country, while Sturza, showing himself more lenient in this respect, insisted that Caragiales plays had failed to display a love for the truth, the beautiful and the good.[129] He stressed:Mr. Caragiale should learn how to respect his nation, and not mock it.[129]Sturdzas discourse contributed to the Academys negative vote (20 votes against and 3 in favor),[130] and rose Caragiales anger.[131] In parallel, Dobrogeanu-Ghereas candidature for the prize was rejected with 16 votes against and 8 for.[129] In 1897, writing for the Conservative paper Epoca, the writer lashed out at Sturdza and his partisans, claiming that they viewed all humorous talents as unholy, useless to the nation, and downright perilous.[123] Vianu noted that Caragiales article directly aimed at Sturdzas reverence for Jacobinism, collectivism, and nationalism, which, in Caragiales own words,manipulated the baggage of big words with which the phony liberal school has been filling empty heads for fifty years on end.[123]Split with JunimeaThe building in Buzau, across the street from the city railway station, where Caragiale leased a restaurant in 1895During the controversy, Caragiale published two memoirs of Eminescu—the poet had died in June 1889.[21][132] One of them was titled In Nirvana (Into Nirvana), and notably expanded on the early years of their friendship and on one of Eminescus earliest amorous disappointments.[133] In an essay of the following year, he showed himself critical of a wave of Eminescu imitators, commenting: A lot of reasonable people will walk the path and […] of the people that know them only a few will raise their hats, whereas an insane person […] will be followed by all the people. That is why the success of the [1890 Eminescu edition] has overcome all the editors expectations.[134] He also reprinted his recollections from the world of theater, alongside pieces originally published in Claponul and various new satirical pieces.[21]Although this attack owed much to Junimeas discourse, Caragiale had by then turned against Maiorescu, probably due to his perception that the society had failed to support his cause at the Academy.[135] In May 1892, he used a public conference at the Romanian Athenaeum as a venue to make known his claims against the former Minister of Education and his associates, which caused a definitive rift between the two public figures.[136] Caragiale also wrote Doua note (Two Notes), an article accusing Maiorescu of having modified and censored some of Eminescus poems, and of having exploited the poet for financial gain.[137] Around that time, he ceased contributing to Convorbiri Literare.[85]Late in 1892, Caragiale published two volumes of prose, including his new novellas Pacat, O faclie de Paste and Om cu noroc.[138] The following year, he began frequenting socialist circles as an outsider to the cause, and soon became good friends with the Imperial Russian-born Marxist thinker Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea.[139] Financial constraints forced Caragiale to become an entrepreneur, and, in November of that year, opened a beer garden near Gabroveni Inn, in Bucharests Lipscani area.[29][140] He probably moved on soon after, and purchased a pub on a neighboring street.[29] In a letter he wrote at the time, the writer showed that he was planning to move to Transylvania, and considered starting a career as a teacher.In November 1893, as a gesture of goodwill towards his adversary, Alexandru Macedonski authored an article in Literatorul, in which he asked authorities if it was normal for a former Head of Theaters not to have a stable source of income—the intended recipient did not acknowledge this of

Summary

Wikipedia Source: Ion Luca Caragiale

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